Endocrinology

The endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone into the bloodstream to regulate the body.The endocrine system is made up of a series of ductless glands that produce chemicals called hormones. Major endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.






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  • The pancreas is located by the liver and produces two very important, antagonistic hormones: insulin, and glucagon. When the body detects a rise in blood sugar (because a person has just eaten), the pancreas sends out insulin which tells the cells to start taking in some of the blood glucose. The opposite occurs with glucagon - the cells don't take in as much blood glucose, therefore the blood glucose levels rise. Diabetes mellitus can occur when the body doesn't produce sufficient amounts of insulin. Insulin must be taken, administered subcutaneously through injection.

  • The pituitary gland can be divided into two branches, the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary produces the growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The posterior pituitary is more of a housing facility for oxytocin and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The pituitary gland can be found in the inferior part of the brain called diencephalon.

    The thyroid gland is located just below the larynx. It consists of spherical hollow sacs called thyroid follicles. The follicles actively accumulate iodide from the blood and secrete it into the colloid. From the colloid, it can work to produce a protein called thyroglobulin. Following this, the thyroid can make a monoiodotyrosine (MIT) or diiodotyrosine (DIT). When two DIT molecules are coupled together, tetraiodothyronine (T4, or thyroxine) is formed. The combination of 1 MIT and 1 DIT produce a trioodothyronine (T3). Diseases of the thyroid can be caused by an over production, called hyperthyroidism or Grave's disease. The oppositie is an underproduction called hypothyroidism.

"Andrea: The Death of a Diabetic" Case Study

1. What are the symptoms of diabetes? Frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained weight loss, weakness and fatigue, neuropathy, and blurred vision are all common symptoms of diabetes.
2. What are the different types of diabetes? Type I, Type II and gestational diabetes.
3. What is known about the genetics of diabetes? An individual is at greater risk of getting diabetes if both of their parents have it.
4. What goes wrong when juvenile diabetes sets in? It is an autoimmune disease. The body literally attacks itself especially the beta cells located in the kidneys that aid in insulin production.
5. What is known about the role that insulin plays in the process of blood sugar? Serves two main functions: to encourage the muscle and liver cells to absorb glucose from the blood, and also to convert glucose to glycogen, so as not to affect osmo-regulation in the cells.
6. What are the various treatments for different diabetic conditions? Most commonly, diabetic patients will need to take insulin daily. Depending on the severity of their glucose levels, an amount of insulin will need to be injected subcutaneously. The will also need to be taking their blood to test everyday with their personal blood sugar meter. Sometimes, a diabetic patient will be put on an insulin pump for continuous monitoring.

I have always been familiar with diabetes because it runs throughout my mother's side of the family. Both of her parents have it and she even had a cousin that died in her early twenties from the disorder. However, I have become a lot more knowledgeable through my clinical. I was put on the floor at a nursing home, where a great deal of the patients had diabetes. I've learned proper administration and injection of insulin (as well as dosing). The important thing for a patient to remember is that diabetes can be very managable through proper diet, exercise and insulin control. They also need to remember how easy it can spin out of control and the detrimental effects of not managing your blood glucose level.


what is diabetes



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